# Evaluation

Evaluation of all ISIC Challenge submissions is performed by the ISIC Challenge automated submission system.

# Goal Metric

Submissions are scored using a normalized multi-class accuracy metric (balanced across categories). Tied positions will be broken using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) metric.

# Definition

Normalized (or balanced) multi-class accuracy is defined as the accuracies of each category, weighted by the category prevalence. Specifically, it is the arithmetic mean of the (<category>_true_positives / <category>_positives) across each of the diagnostic categories. This metric is semantically equivalent to the average recall score.

# Rationale

Clinical application on skin lesion classification has two goals eventually: Giving specific information and treatment options for a lesion, and detecting skin cancer with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity. The first task needs a correct specific diagnosis out of multiple classes, whereas the second demands a binary decision “biopsy” versus “don’t biopsy”. In the former ISIC Challenges, focus was on the second task, therefore this year we want to rank for the more ambitious metric of normalized multiclass accuracy, as it is also closer to real evaluation of a dermatologist. This is also important for the extending reader study, where the winning algorithm(s) will be compared to physicians performance in classification of digital images.

# Other Metrics

Participants will be ranked and awards granted based only on the balanced multi-class accuracy metric. However, for scientific completeness, predicted responses will also have the following metrics computed (comparing prediction vs. ground truth) for each image:

# Individual Category Metrics
# Aggregate Metrics
  • average AUC across all diagnoses
  • malignant vs. benign diagnoses category AUC

# Validation Scoring

All submissions to the ISIC Challenge are immediately issued a validation score. This validation score is not intended to be used for algorithm ranking or evaluation, but is provided for a sanity check of submission data (e.g. to guard against instances where prediction labels are mismatched).

The validation score is computed with the goal metric (balanced multi-class accuracy), taken against a small (~100), non-representative, pre-determined subset of images.

For reference, a random submission generates a validation score of about 0.3.

# Final Score Release

Final scores and a public leaderboard are released shortly after the conclusion of the ISIC Challenge submission period.

# Transparency Statement

The code of the isic-challenge-scoring package is used for actual score computation. This code is open source, permissively licensed, and published, to facilitate external auditing.